laser cutting machine supplier
In challenging financial instances the competition gets fiercer for the exact same manufacturing contracts and most companies are looking for a way to acquire a competitive edge. Positioning and motion tasks in industrial automation such as these in assembly, semiconductor manufacturing, mechanical engineering, laser material processing, inspection systems or in additive manufacturing demand options that require to be robust and trustworthy. Machine and fabrication workshops have some coinciding capabilities but the fabrication workshops have a tendency to concentrate on metal preparation and assembly but the machine workshops cuts metal and are far more concerned with the use of machine tools with which they machine the parts. Laser is the technologies behind laser cutting for hard material, specifically metals for production line or any industrial manufacturing. Making multiple cuts within the same sheet of material is simple. Given that conventional processing strategies cannot suffice all these modern day requirements, laser cutting is being extensively used in metal processing. BLM GROUP has the widest variety of solutions available on the market: 2D laser cutting solutions, for reduce off, characteristics and joints among tubes in frames and structures. When it is focused on the surface, the laser light creates heat utilised for welding, drilling, and cutting. Finally, it is also thought that cutting by laser is amongst the cleanest of all the cutting approaches. Confident thing if the client needs from the manufacturer of the machine the assure to make his parts with necessary precision and quality the manufacturer cannot guarantee nothing at all with out supply of tooling from his hands. Laser tube cutting machine are usually developed to benefit your laser gear. This means that left-handed individuals could have a difficult time when utilizing this cutter. It is then superimposed on a three-dimensional image of the patient’s eye, so that the surgeon can confirm it really is on track just before beginning the process, in addition to monitoring it as the cutting proceeds. The self-centering fixture system guarantees stable pipe fixing and feeding, and saddle-shaped pipe supports keeps the 6-meter-lengthy pipe not deformed in the course of pipe cutting. Laser-primarily based cutting and engraving machines have come down in cost tremendously, and that truth is of real interest to several owners of little businesses. Safety requirements to be addressed when employing such a potentially harmful machine as a stack cutter. The base of the cutting area is produced from a honeycomb material to let the laser light pass via. By means of a wide assortment of processes sheet metal machinery and tools are used to do this. Usually supplied in an A4 size sheet kind, a excellent good quality laser rubber is required for engraving stamp dies and should also have appropriate compression strength and ink transfer properties. Form cutters utilised to produce weak points in the paper so as it really is straightforward to slit. Lately he wrote this write-up connected to CNC tube cutter. Laser as a material do not get eroded or worn down during the procedure of metallurgy and they use heat during the operation. Due to the fact some kind of upkeep or service will always be necessary after a specific quantity of function has been carried out, the laser tube cost linked with a distinct piece of gear will almost always be an essential consideration. What sounds a easy activity such as cutting metal can mean several distinct things from shearing, sawing, to cutting torches and water jet cutters and ultimately to laser cutting tables and plasma cutting. If you operate with chrome tanned leather, you will not be able to function effectively or effectively with a laser cutter. Laser plastic cutting machines bring precision and accuracy to the whole approach. Howsoever, only the types of laser tube cutting machine matching your gear parameters like its version, and dimensions set properly with your machine. The workers set up the sizes for the components and identify the location that requires cutting. By replacing the physical cutting tool with a laser cutter, the non-make contact with method is far more accurate, cleaner and can be more rapidly also. Materials such as steel need more than two kW. In Electrical powered shears, a movable cutting blade and a crank drive are employed for cutting sheets of metals, which functions with the assist of battery powered electric motor. A pretty sturdy 150 watt laser tube, in fact, can expense several times much more than a single that is meant to handle only a third of that level of power. Precision cuts are produced nonetheless, the machine will not use all of the accessible material inside the sheet, creating waste inevitable.
Laser cutting machines also reduce material with higher precision than that of mechanical signifies.Apart from its benefits more than traditional mechanical cutting, laser cutting is a quiet procedure. The laser approach also delivers a finish quality unmatched by any other process. The preciseness levels and edge quality accomplished with laser cutting machines are greater than more traditional slicing strategies, since the laser beam will not wear by way of whilst for the duration of the laser cut approach. The most common sort of laser cutter obtainable in business nowadays is the CO2 laser. The 842 gives the lowest cutting capacity (200 sheets), but it has an adjustable backstop that tends to make it effortless to do repetitive cutting. 1. Repeatability: When cutting tube by hand it is often the case that there are variations from part to portion as the operator might use slightly different approaches each time. If the sheet to be cut is thicker than the laser cutter’s skills, the cuts ought to be made by layers, and then can be glued collectively. One particular paper cutter has those qualities is the Dahle 564 premium guillotine paper cutter. A-Laser delivers higher high quality Laser Cutting Metal solutions and precision components manufacturing employing Ultra Violet (UV), Infrared (IR) and CO2 laser technologies. It handles any programmed shape and can be cut from any path, enabling a wide assortment of cutting processes for complex tube structures such as cutting, chamfering, grooving or perforating, scoring, and so on. Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2011-2021 worldwide and Chinese Laser Tube Cutting Machines market covering all critical parameters. The Atom also has an automatically-engaging paper clamp that holds the paper in spot in the course of cutting thus guaranteeing a nice straight reduce. Common laser cutters produce holes ranging amongst 1 mm and 20 mm. Specialized laser cutters can produce even smaller holes. Welding is utilized to join pieces of sheet metal together by forming a bond among the metals. Laser cutting speed is an critical consideration for any individual seeking to acquire a laser machine. Other materials will either discolor or melt whilst other people can be reduce in a precise manner. This machine has a heavy duty blade that will cut via cardstock, foam board, and plastic sheeting. High good quality laser cutting can be utilized on a wide assortment of components. When you reduce a metal by using the ordinary approach the procedure includes a lot of cutting and grinding and as a outcome the edge of the tool becomes jagged and the cutting blades becomes contaminated by the prior assignment and requirements to be tidied up. Laser cutting applies computerized technologies and as a outcome a thoughts-blowing precision is achieved. And laser cutting is not just for cutting out components. These instruments are mainly utilized to cut out and give specific patterns to metal sheets. They can be adapted to application specifications by utilizing distinct piezoceramic components, electrodes, and assembling technology. Stack paper cutters or ream cutters solve all of these difficulties and a lot more for you. The laser is far more precise and cuts via thicker supplies in a matter of seconds. Producers love plasma CNC machines given that it can full harmful processes such as cutting steel sheets with minimum human intervention and also due to a higher level of consistency they provide. CNC laser cutting delivers extreme accuracy and cost efficiency for every single project. These tools are typically employed materials by all the Manufacturing employment agency which are positioned in Canada for creating a machine. If you are interested in a lot more information about Rotary Paper Trimmers, you may possibly want to check out They offer you a wonderful price on these sorts of paper cutters and they even offer Cost-free Shipping. Sheet metal machinery and tools ‘shear’ the sheet metal until the preferred size has been accomplished. Although the number of obtainable options will often make matters seem a bit confusing, choosing an suitable replacement tube for a laser machine ought to never be all that hard. Also, laser cutting includes a high cost on capital and maintenance with the need to have for assistance and cover gas. Mechanical cutting involves contamination and put on and tear of the blades on the cutting machines, but lasers have no actual surface to wear out, so they can reduce as numerous identical goods as you need to have with no wearing out. Ultimately, all 3 Dahle stack cutters are high-good quality and function a metal base that will be in a position to withstand years of use.
They include RISUG(TM) lengthy-acting vas deferens gel, which has been powerful for a lot more than a decade in research in India ((now being modified and created as Vasalgel(TM) for use outdoors India)), and a higher-tech laser vasectomyusing light to seal off the vas deferens sperm tube with out cutting the skinshowing promise in early studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The laser plastic cutting machines can also be utilised to reduce polymers, polycarbonates and other synthetic components such as polyesters and rubbers. The techniques are very cutting-edge and the technologies boasts of innovation. There won’t be any distortion caused by excess heat in the approach of cutting the technique of production will also leave a completely clean edge without burrs or harm to the product. Laser cutting devices are proving helpful in a wide array of industries. These and other features combine to make the FD 2084 effective and efficient options for automating and processing checks, invoices, PIN notices, tax types, marketing collateral or any other mid-volume mailings that are made on a a single-piece stress sensitive mailer. six-axis laser cutting capabilities let for cuts at any preferred angle for weld prep, plus attain the highest accuracy for straightforward fit-up of assemblies – all in a single plan cycle. Wood – The laser cutter can reduce styles into wood, like customized pencils, wooden jewelry, wood image frames, furnishings and far more. Most top quality laser cutting machines such as those made by Trumpf permit the operator to modify gas pressures and cutting speeds to guarantee that a near ideal finish is achieved. Though plasma CNC cutters face competition from newer technologies such as CNC laser cutting machines, the future is nonetheless bright for these versatile machines. The report consists of detailed analysis of upstream and downstream demand, marketplace dynamics, quantitative forecasting and forward-looking insight of the the end, the report use stratified analysis methodology for a new project of Laser Tube Cutting Machines Business. This cutter delivers a variety of cutting guides that let the user to use many distinct paper sizes. Whilst there are other technologies that are typically used, most such pieces of gear consist of laser tubes that are accountable for in fact making light that can be focused into a beam. There are instances when a rotary trimmer or guillotine paper cutter just won’t, nicely, cut it. If you have a massive cutting job that needs you to cut hundreds of pieces of paper, what you need is a stack cutter. The 842 has a paper clamp that guarantees accurate cutting. With the assist of Laser Cutting Metal, many industries across the globe have been capable to reduce down on quantity of wastage and time consumed as compared to traditional metal cutting approaches. Very usually even so, even with extremely higher traverse speeds the time saved in fabricating a sheet of metal is only several seconds as the majority of the fabricating process is the actual cutting. Several little firms now rely on cutting and engraving machines primarily based on laser technology. The applications of lasers range from generating holes into soft supplies like rubber to cutting high strength steel. PI positioning systems are employed where technology is pushed forward in market and investigation. Whenlaser cutting foil the technique parameters as properly as the number of beam delivery passes can be adjusted to create the ideal cut. To help the engraving method, it is necessary to eliminate the excess dust which is continually produced by the laser cutting action with an effective exhaust filtration technique. Flying Optic Machines: This is a single the quickest cutting equipment. Due to their high dynamics and pushing forces piezo actuators are highly suitable for the use in machines for additive manufacturing. Every cutter has a measurement grid with both standard and metric measurements, and a paper clamp is included to support keep your work in the proper spot. After the sheet metal has been cut, it will be formed into its required shape to generate a element just before finishing. 1. Sheet Laser Cutting. And to go along with saving time, with cutting by laser the components will also be prepared for service right away. All the producers of machine tools, in specific tube bending machines, punching machines or press brakes supply the possibility to purchase original tooling with each other with the purchased machine.
Choose a paper cutter from makers such as GBC, Swingline, Akiles, Dahle, Martin Yale, Premier, Intimus, Triumph, Kutrimmer or Challenge. A amazing shop for sculptors, supplying mould generating materials as effectively as excellent advice (usually) about the greatest factor to buy for a certain procedure. That gets about the oops, I forgot” issue, but doesn’t cover a pipe coming loose or the temperature creeping up. I actually wanted to in fact verify cold(ish) water was flowing by way of the glass laser tube. Building a material without the aid of other machines is quite tough for a manufacturer. With this strategy the tube remains stationary whilst the laser moves around the workpiece creating the needed cutting. Drilling, cutting, and engraving are the basic use for the CO2 laser. Carbon dioxide lasers have the capacity to keep a continuous and high level of energy and are generally employed for purposes like cutting, welding, etching, and marking applications. After you have completed the exposure it is a easy method of cutting open the sachet and washing away the excess unexposed polymer ahead of returning the stamp die back to the machine for a ten minute curing. The report estimates 2016-2021 industry resent trends for Laser Tube Cutting Machines business. DAHLE offers 3 models of paper stack cutters with each model growing in size and added attributes. The AutoSeal® Formax FD 2084 Medium Volume make use of patented pressure seal technologies for processing reduce-sheet and continuous stress seal forms in a mid-volume production atmosphere. In Florida, companies that want to get more out of their machinery can use laser cutting tools. There are a lot of methods to do this with diverse hand tools and machines, but no one has ever tried reproducing this approach with a laser cutter. In the past we have employed several configurations of 1µm fiber laser machine, primarily configured as a laser marking machine , to reduce these varieties of foil. The Dahle 142 guillotine 42″ paper cutter feature lockable T-squares on the scale bar for accurate measurements and 90-degree angles. ACS Motion Control is an OEM-focused supplier of motion controller and drive solutions for high-tech systems in fields such as semiconductor manufacturing, laser processing, additive manufacturing, flat panel show manufacturing, electronic assembly, life sciences, and a lot more. Each of these will cut components out of a flat sheet of metal. Right here we are going to show you some of the approach equipments for sale that featured by our reliable suppliers and manufacturers, such as Sheet Cutting Machine. A plasma CNC cutter throws out gas at really higher velocity in a controlled manner along with an arc to cut by way of steel sheets. CncKad gives a variety of Punch, Laser, Plasma, and Flame machines help with their computer software. Using a guillotine paper cutter can be a risky endeavor – just think of all the scary images the word “guillotine” conjures up. It is essential to be additional cautious when utilizing a single of these trimmers and Dahle has offered the 564 a safety guard that can aid you keep secure. Paper shredders are excellent machines that can help keep everyone’s private data beneath wraps. The procedure of shearing come into the method when the manufacturer offers with the sheet metals. Diverse approaches of cutting employing laser cutters are vaporization cutting, melt and blow, thermal stress cracking, cold cutting, scribing, reactive cutting and flame cutting. Atom: If you have a massive office and are regularly involved with high-volume projects, the Atom series of rotary paper trimmers is almost certainly the way to go. The Atom can cut up to thirty sheets at one particular time and has an extremely sturdy metal base with non-skid feet for added security and accuracy. Laser cutting has genuinely created its mark in the final couple of decades or so due to its precise precision and less time wastage. We are here to bring collectively China factories that supply manufacturing systems and machinery that are employed by processing industries such as but not restricted to: cnc cutting machine, laser cutting machine, metal cutting machine. It aids the cutting outcome to get a greater quality. Please turn off the laser engraving machine and cut the energy, clean the guide rail with clean mull, then please drop the lubricating oil on the guide rail, try to move the slide rod and make positive that the oil comes into it. Make the slide rod move on the guide rail following filling the oil, now we need to install the guide rail firstly, please do not repair the guide rail firstly, set up the screws in the correct position and maintain the slide ray on the even level.
All else becoming equal, a CO2 laser tube of greater diameter will also generate much more power, with the identical connection holding with regard to length. Grinders, circular saws and other unsafe cutting equipment have been replaced with laser cutting machines that are contact-significantly less so there are no costly cutting edges to consistently maintain and replace. One of the positive aspects of laser cutting is that cutting lubricants are no longer essential. Furthermore, now it is noticed that laser cutting is in its peak as it is utilized in various fields and with time the significance of metals and its uses has been improved. That’s simply because this cutter has a laser that will show you specifically where your paper will be reduce. Sometimes this is a wire that hooks over the blade’s handle other times, the latch is a piece of metal that connects to the bottom of the manage. SafeCut LED: Typically regarded to be safer to the eyes than some of the laser systems that are out there. This is simply because there is a lot of wasted excess supplies when a element has to be reduce out of a block or bar of metal. Right here, the sheet metal is placed in between the bottom and leading tools of the punching machine. High production laser tube cutting machines reduce round, rectangular, square or other common tube profiles to satisfy a range of tube cutting wants. At the very same time, the strict assembly method ensures the steady operation of the machine with high precision. Main advantages of making use of a Laser machine contains that, in this cutting approach the heat that the region is subjected to, is modest. Laser cutting involves focusing a beam of laser light more than the sheer metal heating and subsequently burning the metal. We are right here to bring with each other China factories that supply manufacturing systems and machinery that are utilised by processing industries which includes but not limited to: laser cutting machine, cnc cutting machine, cnc machine. The simple use of this as the name suggested it assists in cutting all size and sorts of metals in appropriate or desired shape. Ophir gives a complete range of laser energy and energy sensors measuring femtowatts to hundreds of kilowatts and picojoules to hundreds of joules. Laser tube cutting allows wonderful accuracy, with hardly any tool wear. It is a dual-objective fiber laser machine that solves the dual cutting specifications of sheet and pipe at a single time. Some of the rewards of this advanced cutting method consists of higher level of accuracy, higher precision, clean cuts, lowered contamination of workpiece, lowered power consumption, needs minimal operator intervention and quicker operation. This is also one particular of the most versatile techniques for cutting or engraving complicated to basic designs on a piece of work. Cutting is carried out by aiming the energy developed by the higher-power laser at a small portion of the object to be reduce. Soon after the finishing procedure, the sheet metal goes on to fulfill its subsequent purpose. The precise quantity of energy employed relies on the type of laser, what quantity is being cut, the thickness of the material and as effectively the cutting rate. CypCut plane cutting computer software is a set of computer software specially created for the deep customization of the laser cutting market, straightforward to use, rich in functions, appropriate for a variety of processing occasions. Wear and tear of the machine is an inevitable element of industry machinery, and this applies to gear cutting CNC machines also, which makes it highly useful to obtain a machine with buyer assistance, such as the availability of spare parts. Laser machines and systems are employed in a selection of applications and industries such as the medical device industry, aerospace, manufacturing, automotive, pharmaceutical, and electronic sector. The largest advantage is that due to the higher temperature along with high velocity of the gas, debris, slag or burrs are blown away from the reduce and this benefits in a cut that hardly necessitates any finishing, thus saving worthwhile time and effort in the consequent processes. Rather, the total process of cutting has not only turn out to be simpler but the process is achieved at a much lower time. With the light power produced by a 150 watt laser tube getting capable of slicing rapidly via even comparatively thick sheets of hard metal once intensified in this way, this stage is each bit as essential as the other individuals. The report offers deep understanding of historical details, forecasts, firm profiles, technologies, market place drivers, market trends and connected parameters within the Ltcc Laser Processing Program Market.
The report estimates 2016-2021 market resent trends for Ltcc Laser Processing Program industry. Right here we are going to show you some of the procedure equipments for sale that featured by our dependable suppliers and makers, such as Tube And Sheet Laser Cutting Machine. Industrial laser cutting has a wide variety of applications. Soon after the complete piece of material has been used, somebody manually has to either shake the sheet to get the person parts to break off of the massive sheet or use a rubber mallet to break the ties. There is no need to have to go by way of a tedious cleaning procedure after the cutting is comprehensive. It all begins with sheets of strong steel, up to 3.five cm thick, and an automated machine with an oxygen and gas fueled flame. These cutters have an ergonomic deal with that assists make the machine secure and straightforward to use, plus every single machine has an automatic cutting method that makes it possible for you to reduce your paper quickly and accurately. The high-power X-rays at beamlines offer many possibilities for supplies investigation, such as checking welding seams of workpieces. MIG welding permits the welding process to be a lot faster than other strategies which tends to make it excellent for welding softer metals such as aluminium. And utilizing a measurement that ranks a excellent circle as a 1., the researchers identified that the laser-based approach scored about95 as compared with about77 for the manual approach to cutting the disc from the capsule. Bending and laser cutting: this turns a tube into a completed item. Industrial building designers are supplied with laser reduce panel systems produced from aluminum for beneath boards and eaves. Laser tube cutting machine assist to enhance the accuracy and precision of the laser equipment machines. We may use your Private Information to contact you with newsletters, advertising or promotional materials and other info that might be of interest to you. This is a approach that might involve a single or far more stamping stations to perform a variety of actions on a metal sheet to develop a final workpiece. Stack paper cutter is utilised to cut huge stacks of paper at the exact same time they are employed in big paper businesses. Some operations might be very simple, involving only straight cuts, whilst some operations are quite complex and involve bevel and other sorts of cutting, enabling the operator to trim, minimize, shave and pare the metal plate beneath the tool. These new sheet metal fabrication processes are not only safer but considerably faster as nicely and can speed up delivery times. The tube that stands at the center of the typical piece of laser-primarily based equipment will inevitably have a limited lifetime. All of these merchandise started their life as thin sheets of various metals of different gauges or even massive rolls of the material. Process, material, perform cycle, ambient situations, and criteria such as throughput, precision, geometry tolerances, size of the machining surface, and contours, all make different demands on the automation platforms. The use of pc controlled laser cutting permits for higher accuracy whilst at the exact same time reducing the amount of waste. There are several factors that metal can do and a single of the most essential one is the fabrication of metal by cutting, and bending and later assembling the finished encompassing of machines and components of quite a few structures is referred to as metal fabrication. Styles and strategies, which seemed an impossibility, are now getting developed on a dedicated tube processing laser. The Electron comes with 4 different blade styles: straight, wavy, scoring and perforating, also attributes a tough metal cutting base with an integrated storage compartment for blades that are not in use. Motion systems that employ galvanometer scanners generally operate by moving the portion to be processed under the scanner and passing the manage to scanner controller to carry out its own person operation. You never constantly have the time to commit cutting stacks of paper by hand, and you could not trust your hands to cut a straight line. The report then estimates 2016-2021 market growth of Laser Tube Cutting Machines industry. The machine is very efficient and the cutting speed is rapidly. Very good for art and design components and tools, paints, fancy pens and papers, portfolios and presentation circumstances. Fabrication of metal is quite crucial because many metal item should undergo the process of bending and cutting as well as joining the cut pieces the get a fine solution.
Often a tiny company that specialises in this variety of work is known as a fabrication shop, but it need to be noted that in most situations the individual components and metalworking activities will overlap with machine shop perform and sheet metal engineering or sheet metal work. As crucial as the availability of spare parts is the size of the cutting table when it comes to gear cutting CNC machines, because a badly sized cutting table would lead to lesser production, with the market thereby ending up with fewer merchandise on the shelf. These presses are enormous potent machines that could effortlessly sever fingers, or otherwise injure a careless worker. The report supplies deep information of historical data, forecasts, firm profiles, technologies, marketplace drivers, market trends and related parameters inside the Laser Tube Cutting Machines Market. Ponce wheels are generally sold in art and craft supply stores and they appear just like mini pizza cutters. A lot of these laser-cutting systems are high precision equipments. Blunt surface: NO.2D cold soon after the heat treatment, pickling, the material is soft, the surface was silver white luster, for deep drawing processing, such as automotive components, water pipes and so on. Obtaining chosen the correct thickness and grade for your project, you can now have your stainless steel sheet custom reduce. The manufacturing procedure of these sheets involves them, first being rolled to correct size and thickness, then annealed and pickled and lastly passivated by passing the sheet one last time amongst some very polished rollers. Not all components call for the identical amount of laser energy (the price at which power is delivered by the light). If you are in the market for a rotary paper trimmer or guillotine cutter, you ought to really pay a visit to They carry the full line of Fellowes paper trimmers and cutters. Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM), also named Single Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM ) is a extremely effective microscopy technologies for gentle in vivo imaging providing low phototoxicity and fast image acquisition. Mechanical and metal laser cutting are two most frequently and widely utilized cutting processes of these days. UT Southwestern’s early adoption of the cutting-edge technology allowed researchers to report on the superior diagnostic overall performance of this novel approach compared to traditional techniques for diagnosing prostate cancer. With this approach, specialists can use laser cutting, punching, press brake forming, shearing, and welding to develop virtually something from this super-thin and versatile metal item. Get a demonstration of laser engraving and cutting systems so you can determine on the table size and tube wattage that you will require to generate the projects you think you’ll be functioning with. Besides metal sheet cutting, it also supports cutting of round tube, square tube, rectangular tube, elliptical tube, waist tube, D-shaped tube, hexagonal tube, shaped tube, etc. Laser Cutting makes use of a focused light and normally an help gas to burn material (typically metal) into a shape which can then undergo further manufacturing processes such as pressing or countersinking. No matter what type of CNC cutting machine that is getting utilised, these machines are usually self contained units and can remove, by themselves, a lot of security concerns. 1 of the issues that make these cutters stand out is that every unit has a laser that helps you get the most precise reduce achievable. This is due to the burnt smell when laser cutting the leather. Plasma exists only at quite high temperatures and is utilized by plasma cutting systems to cut electrically-conductive metals very neatly and very rapidly. Precision sheet metal fabrication is simpler with a laser. You can either set up a meeting with these professionals or you can email them for suggestions and advice on the best laser cutting components and strategies. The limitations of laser cutting incorporate becoming more expensive with higher volumes of work compared to stamping. The AutoSeal® FD 2084, combined with a laser printer and pressure seal types, creates a safe, time saving and efficient solution for paper processing. PI Ceramic offers a wealth of expertise in the manufacturing of piezoceramic supplies, components, and actuators. I passionate to share my information with regards to good quality laser cutting machines for your industry. For the duration of welding, there are two metal sheets that are attached in order to make a bigger structure.